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In the words of Cohen, Manion and Morrison (2000), research paradigm can be defined as the broad framework, which comprises perception, beliefs and understanding of several theories and practices that are used to conduct a research. It can also be characterized as a precise procedure, which involves various steps through which a researcher creates a relationship between the research objectives and questions.

According to the definition given by Gliner and Morgan (2000) “paradigm is a way of thinking about and conducting a research. It is not strictly a methodology, but more of a philosophy that guides how the research is to be conducted (p.17)”. Research paradigm and philosophy comprises various factors such as individual’s mental model, his way of seeing thing, different perceptions, variety of beliefs towards reality, etc. This concept influences the beliefs and value of the researchers, so that he can provide valid arguments and terminology to give reliable results.

Easter-by-Smith et al, (2006) have discussed about three different components of research paradigm or three ways to think about research philosophy.

Table 1: Three Components of Research Paradigm (Source: Easter-by-Smith et al 2006)

Epistemology Common parameters and assumptions those are associated with the excellent way to investigate the nature of the real world.
Ontology Common assumptions that are created to understand the real nature of the society
Methodology Combination of different techniques that are used by the researcher to investigate different situations.  


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