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Research methodology is defined as a systematic analysis or investigation into the research subject in order to discover rationale and experimental principles, facts, theories, applications & processes. According to Davies & Elder (2006), successful completion of the research highly depends on its research methodology.

Research philosophy is the approach to understand and write the knowledge that is gained by conducting the research. Three types of research philosophies are used in research paper. These are positivism, interpretive and critical (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006). Each of these philosophies represents a model that is known as paradigm for research. According to Mackenzie & Knipe (2006), positivism is the oldest and most widely used philosophy in the research papers.

It is a scientific method that is based on rationale and empiric of the research (Burke, 2007). In the positivism paradigm, various concepts are used. These concepts are quantification, hypothesis and objective measures. In the positivism paradigm, researcher works with observable social reality, rationale and experiences to reach on end result of the research.

According to Burke (2007), interpretive paradigm is used to understand the World of human experiences. In interpretive paradigm, researcher recognizes the impact on research of their background and experience (Burke, 2007). Critical paradigm researcher uses concepts such as distribution of power in the society and political ideology (Mackenzie & Knipe, 2006). According to Mackenzie & Knipe (2006), Positivism paradigm is most commonly aligned with quantitative methods of data collection and analysis (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe & Lowe, 2002). On the other hand, interpretive paradigm and critical paradigm are aligned with mixture of both qualitative and quantitative methods that is known as mixed method (Burke, 2007).

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Burke, M.E. (2007), Making Choices: Research Paradigms and Information Management, Library Review, Vol. 56, No. 6, pp. 476-484.
Davies, A & Elder, C. (2006), “The handbook of applied linguistics, Great Britain: Wiley-Blackwell.
Mackenzie, N & Knipe, S. (2006), ‘Research dilemmas: Paradigms, methods and methodology’, [online], Issues in Educational Research, no.16, Available from:


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